People’s Republic of China

The history of the catholic church in China reaches back to the year 1307, when Khanbaliq archdiocese, today’s Beijing, was erected. After the diocese’s falldown in 1483 it lasted up to 1690 respective 1660, that Portugal established the dioceses of Peking and Nanking. From 1840 onwards the Holy See founded apostolic vicariates in Tibet and in Mongolia. To contain Portugal’s influence, Pius IX abolished Peking as well as Nanking diocese in 1856 and substituted them with an increasing number of apostolic vicariates, which were administered by missionaries of numerous religious orders and many different home countries. It lasted up to Pius XII on April 11, 1946, to establish the regular hierarchy by rising the vicariates to dioceses.

In the 1920s the first contemporary Chinese born bishops were consecrated, and Thomas Tian Gengxin became the first Chinese cardinal in the consistory of 1946, but the church remained under the overwhelming influence of external missionaries. After proclaiming the People’s Republic of China in 1949, missionary activities were forbidden; external members of religious orders were – often after several years of imprisonment – deported, and also the Chinese born clergy often was not able to obey the pastoral duties.

Therefore, in fact most dioceses and apostolic prefectures became vacant. In 1951, Anton Pott, S. V. D., of Xinyang was the last missionary bishop to be appointed, but he never was able to be consecrated and left for Taiwan. In 1952, Pius XII elected with Joseph Wang Cizhang, O. F. M., of Hengyang the last official bishop possible, while Humilis Yang Guang-qi of Yuci, who was appointed in 1955, was not able to be consecrated any more.

Because of this desperate situation, which was intensified by the fact the government forbid the few remaing Chinese bishops, who were able to do their restricted service, any contact to „foreign powers“, i. e. the Vatican, some of them decided to consecrate new bishops without approval of the Holy See to allow a religious survival. With Li De-hua on March 7, 1958, a long consecration line without papal mandate started. Archbishop Pi Shu-shi, who consecrated at least twenty-six prelates, was considered excommunicated therefore for several years.

These consecrations ended in 1963 due to increasing governmental pressure. Free religious life diminished completely during the years of cultural revolution from 1966 up to Mao’s death in 1976, and a lot of bishops, priests and lay people were imprisoned or lost their life.

Michael Fu Tie-shan, first Bishop after the Cultural Revolution

Very remarkable therefore was the first consecration which took place in Beijing in 1979. Against the Holy See’s sharp protests, Michael Fu Tien-shan became bishop by Michael Yang Gao-jian and got in charge for Beijing Diocese. At the same time the Church started to become organized by the Patriotic Association. To lay down the hierarchical status, from then onwards there were no archbishops or ecclesiastical provinces any more, but equal bishops chosen by people and priests. On the other hand stood catholics loyal to Rome, who were led by their own, clandestine consecrated bishops. Therefore, soon several dioceses had two reigning bishops at the same time; often the decision whether „patriotic“ or „Roman“ is impossible, because some bishops changed the sides or, more often in the most recent time, bishops were recognized by both parties.

A first, onesided attempt of reconciliazation took place in 1981, when St. John Paul II elected titular bishop and Apostolic Administrator of Guangzhou, Dominic Deng Yiming, S. I., who was in charge since 1950 and imprisoned for long years, as regular Archbishop of Guangzhou – the very first appointment after nearly thirty years. This step had as consequence the total negation of Deng by the patriotic movement which up to then had appreciated him deeply. He was not able to take over his office and had to go in Hong Kong exile.

Anthony Li Duan, Archbishop of Xi’an, one of the Delegates to the Bishops Synod 2005

The following bishop’s consecrations took place since 1958; details about the first two ones are not known:

00.00.0000    Shi Guangdong, by N. N.

00.00.0000    Wang Feili, by N. N.

00.00.1958    Paul Xi Minhuan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

00.00.1958    Joseph Zhou Yi-zhai, by Dong Wen-long

13.04.1958    Bernardin Dong Guangqing, by Joseph Li Daonan

13.04.1958    Marc Yuan Wen-hua, by Joseph Li Taonan

20.04.1958    Stanislav Chang Sou-yi, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

20.04.1958    Lan Bo-lu, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

20.04.1958    Pan Shao-qing, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

20.04.1958    Lucas Wang Shou-qian, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

01.06.1958    Dong Wen-long, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

01.06.1958    Henry Jia Fu-shan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

01.06.1958    Charles Li Ming-yuan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

01.06.1958    Joseph Zhong Huai-de, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

15.06.1958    Chen Yuencai, by Francis Yi Xuan-hua

15.06.1958    Paul Kong Ling-zhong, by Francis Yi Xuan-hua (?)

22.06.1958    Zhao You-min, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

06.07.1958    John Li Xi-ting, by Matthew Duan Yinmin (?)

20.07.1958    John Wang Qi-wei, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

09.10.1958    Chen Du-qing, by John Wang Qi-wei

09.10.1958    Hu Qin-ming, by John Wang Qi-wei

09.10.1958    Huang Shu, by John Wang Qi-wei

26.10.1958    Tarcisius Guo Ze-qian, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.10.1958    James Li Shu-ren, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.10.1958    Louis Li Zhen-lin, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.10.1958    Xiong De-lian, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.10.1958    Michael Yang Gao-jian, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

00.00.1959    Wang Ju-guang, by Mathew Duan Yinmin

26.03.1959    John Li Sheng-xue, by Joseph Li Boyu

26.05.1959    (?) Peter Wang Rui-huan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

31.05.1959    Mathew Wang Wei-ming, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

01.07.1959    (?) Joseph Yao Guang-yu, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.07.1959    Anthony Tu Shi-hua, by Joseph Li Daonan

15.08.1959    Paul Francis Zhang Ming-qian, by Bernardin Dong Guang-qing

15.11.1959    John Li Wei-guang, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

15.11.1959    Thomas Qian Yurong, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

15.11.1959    Shen Chu-ming, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

15.11.1959    Matthew Yu Cheng-cai, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

00.00.1960    Zhou Qingyun, by N. N.

26.04.1960    Fang Zhigang, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.04.1960    Shu Qi-shui, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.04.1960    Matthew Wu Guo-huan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

26.04.1960    Louis Zhang Jia-shu, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

30.04.1960    Zhang Ri-jin, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

00.05.1960    Nicholas Shi Lunguo, by Dong Wen-long

21.01.1962    Anthony Gao Yong, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    Stephan He Chunming, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    Li De-hua, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    Joseph Lin Quan, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    Andrew Liu An-zhi, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    John Xia Xue-qian, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

21.01.1962    Joseph Ye Yin-yun, by Ignatius Pi Shu-shi

31.03.1963    Shi Ming-liang, by Paul Deng Jizhou

07.04.1963    Fan Dao-jiang, by John Li Xi-Ting

14.05.1963    Paul Li De-pei, by Francis Zhao Zhen-sheng

21.12.1979    Michael Fu Tie-shan, by Michael Yang Gao-jian

00.00.1980    (?) Thomas Min Doumu, by Julius Jia Zhiguo (?)

25.04.1980    Lucas Li Jingfeng, by Anthony Zhou Wei-dao

19.12.1980    Julius Jia Zhiguo, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

00.00.1981    Joseph Jin Dechen, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

21.01.1981    Casimir Wang Milu, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

20.04.1981    Paul Zhang Chengguo, by N. N.

16.06.1981    Francis Zhou Shanfu, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

24.07.1981    Matthew Ma Long-lin, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

24.07.1981    Joseph Qian Hui-min, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

24.07.1981    Lawrence Zhang Wen-bin, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

24.07.1981    Augustine Zhao Jingnong, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

24.07.1981    Paul Zu Zhenjiang, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

27.09.1981    John Cai Ti-yuan, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

27.09.1981    Peter Paul Li Panshi, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

19.10.1981    Lucas Thomas Zhang Huaixin, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

10.12.1981    Bartholomew Yu Chengti, by Casimir Wang Milu

18.12.1981    John Ji Huairang, by Francis Zhong Huai-de

2…12.1981    Peter Fan Wenxing, by Chang Shou-yi

21.12.1981    Paul John Liu Jinghe, by Stanislav Chang Shou-yi

21.12.1981    Simon Liu Zhong-yu, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

00.00.1982    John Qu Jingfeng, by N. N.

11.01.1982    Stanislaus Min Xilian, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

25.01.1982    Paul Fan Yufei, by Anthony Zhou Weidao

12.02.1982    Joseph Sun Yuanmo, by Francis Han Tingbi

17.02.1982    Paul Song Wei-li, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

02.03.1982    Matthew Lu Zhengshen, by Bartholomew Yu Chengti

20.04.1982    Peter Chen Jianzhang, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

06.05.1982    Andrew Han Jindao, by N. N.

18.05.1982    Paul Liu Shuhe, by Francis Xavier Zhou Shanfu

15.06.1982    Stephen Li Side, by Paul Liu Shuhe

15.06.1982    Melchior Shi Hongzhen, by Paul Liu Shuhe

24.06.1982    Cosmas Shi Enxiang, by Francis Xavier Zhou Shanfu

21.07.1982    Anthony Li Weidao, by Francis Han Ting-pi

25.07.1982    Peter Liu Guandong, by Francis Zhou Shanfu

11.08.1982    Joseph Shi Hongzhen, by Joseph Li Side

23.09.1982    Augustin Zheng Shouduo, by Francis Han Tingbi

06.10.1982    John Liu Dinghan, by Joseph Zhong Huai-de

10.10.1982: Roch Liu Dian-chi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

10.10.1982: John Liu Dinghan, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

18.12.1982: Benedict Bonaventure Zhangxin, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

30.12.1982: Michael Xiao Liren, by Casimir Wang Milu

00.00.1983: John Liu Dinghan, sub conditione by Stephen Li Side

09.03.1983: Raymond Wang Chong Lin, by Casimir Wang Milu

16.03.1983: Stephen Li Xinzheng, by Casimir Wang Milu

08.04.1983: Paul Li Zhenrong, by Casimir Wang Milu

08.11.1983: Joseph Ma Zhongmu, by Casimir Wang Milu

00.00.1984: Joseph Zhu Yousan, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

18.01.1984: Odoric Victor Liu Hede, by Stephen Li Xinzheng (?)

18.01.1984: Anthony Yang Shao-huai, by Stephen Li Xinzheng

25.01.1984: James Xie Shiguang, by Stephen Li Xinzheng

24.03.1984: Joseph Meng Ziwen, by Matthew Lu Zhengshen

00.06.1984: John Baptist Ye Yishi, by James Xie Shiguang

27.07.1984: Joseph Li Congzhe, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

14.09.1984: Andrew Hao Jinli, by Melchior Zhang Kexin (?)

09.01.1985: Vincent Huang Shoucheng, by Paul Liu Shuhe

27.01.1985: Aloysius Jin Luxian, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

27.01.1985: Stephen Li Side, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

26.02.1985: Joseph Fan Zhongliang, by Matthew Lu Zhen Sheng

14.06.1985: John Chen Shizhong, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

22.09.1985: John Li Xue-song, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

03.03.1986: Peter Zhang Bairen, by Matthew Lu Zhensheng

29.04.1986: Peter Chen Bolu, by Francis Han Tingbi

30.11.1986: Joseph Huang Zi-yu, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

30.11.1986: Louis Yu Runshen, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

30.11.1986: Peter Zhang Shi-zhi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

30.11.1986: Joseph Zhu Hua-yu, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

00.00.1987: Augustinus Hu Daguo, by Peter Fan Xueyan

15.03.1987: Philipp Ma Qi, by Lawrence Zhang Wen-bin

29.03.1987: Paul Shi Chunjie, by Stephen Li Xinzheng

05.04.1987: Anthony Li Duan, by Lawrence Zhang Wen-bin

31.05.1987: Philip Xu Lizhi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

07.08.1987: John Yang Shudao, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

09.08.1987: Joseph Zhong Huaide, by Lucas Ly Jing Feng

06.09.1987: John Wu Shizhen, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

10.09.1987: Peter Li Hongye, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

08.12.1987: Simon Qu Tian-xi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

08.12.1987: Anthony Wang Zicheng, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

28.03.1988: Matthew Chen Muchen, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

24.04.1988: Samuel Guo Chuanzhen, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

24.04.1988: Paul Han Xi-rang, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

24.04.1988: Joseph Ma Xuesheng, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

24.04.1988: Joseph Sun Zhibin, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

24.04.1988: James Zhao Ziping, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

12.08.1988: Philip Yang Libo, by Julius Jia Zhiguo

16.10.1988: Zhang Hualiang, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

27.11.1988: John Zhou Fengqing, by Aloysius Jin Lu-xian

04.12.1988: Andreas Anicetus Wang Chongyi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

00.00.1989: Thomas Gao Yuchen, by N. N.

07.05.1989: Anthony Zhong Quanzhang, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

15.05.1989: Paul Guo Wenzhi, by Paul Liu Shuhe

21.05.1989: Paul Jiang Taoran, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

21.05.1989: Pius Jin Peixian, by Joseph Zhong Hiai-de

29.06.1989: John Jiang Liren, by Peter Liu Guandong

29.06.1989: Matthew Pei Xiangde, by Peter Liu Guandong

30.06.1989: Joseph Li Bingyao, by Peter Liu Guandong

21.07.1989: Marc Yuan Wen Zai, by Joseph Fan Zhong-Liang

31.07.1989: Michael Huang Woze, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

31.07.1989: Joseph Xu Zhixian, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

30.08.1989: Simon An Shi’en, by Peter Liu Guandong

31.08.1989: John Baptist Liang Xisheng, by Anthony Yang Shao-huai

11.09.1989: Stephen Liu Difen, by N. N.

03.10.1989: (?) Simon Zhang Jiumu, by Peter Liu Guandong

03.10.1989: (?) Philip Peter Zhao Zhendong, by Peter Liu Guandong

08.10.1989: Joseph Hou Guoyang, by Peter Joseph Fan Xueyan

28.10.1989: Joseph Hou Jin-de, by Peter Chen Bolu

14.11.1989: John Han Dingxiang, by Peter Liu Guandong

12.12.1989: Matthias Yu Chengxin, by Paul Li Zhenrong

13.01.1990: Thomas Zeng Jingmu, by James Xie Shiguang

06.05.1990: James Ping Leung Lin, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

08.05.1990: (?) Francis Zhang Feng-zao, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

08.07.1990: Thaddeus Guo Yingong, by Benedict Zhangxin

08.07.1990: Bonaventure Luo Jun, by Benedict Zhangxin

26.08.1990: Louis Liu Huanbo, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

28.10.1990: Francis Xavier Guo Zhengji, byJoseph Zhong Huaide

28.10.1990: Andrew Zhu Wenyu, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

00.12.1990: John Baptist Wang Ruohan, by Paul Li Zhenrong

00.00.1991: Shi Shoujing, by N. N.

24.01.1991: Joseph Zheng Changcheng, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

22.02.1991: Joseph Su Yuanmo, sub conditione by Francis Han Tingbi

05.05.1991: Michael Xie Chaogang, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

08.05.1991: Nicholas Shi Jingxian, by Anthony Li Duan

04.09.1991: John Huo Cheng, by Benedict Zhangxin

11.09.1991: Matthew Gu Zheng, by Li Zhenrong

17.11.1991: Joseph Wang Zhenye, by Anthony Li Duan

25.11.1991: Paul Xie Tingzhe, by Lucas Ly Jing Feng

27.11.1991: Joseph Zhang Weizhu, by John Wang Guohan

08.12.1991: Matthew Pan Deshi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

24.02.1992: Michael Liu Xianru, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

14.05.1992: John Zhang Qingtian, by Peter Liu Guandong

27.05.1992: Joseph Shi Hongzhen, sub conditione by N. N.

04.10.1992: James David Lin Xili, by Michael Xiao Liren

15.03.1993: Joseph Jin Dechen, sub conditione by Peter Zhang Boren

18.03.1993: Peter Hou Jingwen, by John Liu Dinghan

02.05.1993: Francis An Shuxin, by Peter Liu Guandong

02.05.1993: James Su Zhimin, by Peter Liu Guandong

14.05.1993: Paul Lo Bei Zhan, by Matthew Duan Yinmin

18.05.1993: Thomas Zhao Feng Wu, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

01.08.1993: John Baptist Liu Jingshan, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

03.09.1993: John Gao Kexian, by Joseph Li Bingyao (?)

21.09.1993: Matthew Luo Duxi, by John Chen Shizhong

07.11.1993: Stanislaus Han Daoyi, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

03.12.1993: Benedict Cai Xiufeng, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

07.12.1993: Joseph Liu Yuanren, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

19.03.1994: Francis Tong Hui, by Anthony Li Duan

11.04.1994: (?) Lu Zhiyuan, by N. N.

18.12.1994: Sylvester Li Jiantang, by Benedict Zhangxin

19.03.1995: Joseph Chen Xu, by Andrew Anicetus Wang Chong Yi

19.03.1995: Joseph Zhu Baoyu, by Joseph Jin Dechen

22.06.1995: Joseph Wei Jingyi, by Paul Guo Wenzhi

12.10.1995: John Liu Shigong, by John Baptist Liu Jingshan

17.12.1995: Alphonse Yang Guang Yan, by Anthony Li Duan

06.01.1996: Peter Zhang Zhiyong, by Lucas Ly Jing Feng

16.04.1996: Nicholas Han Jide, by Philip Ma Qi

14.05.1996: Josaphat Li Hongguang, by Augustin Zheng Shouduo

28.10.1996: Matthew Chen Xilu, by Peter Fan Wenxing

30.10.1996: (?) Stephen Yang Xiangtai, by Peter Chen Bolu (?)

08.12.1996: Joseph Wang Dianduo, by Nicholas Shi Jingxian

19.03.1997: John Chen Cangbao, by Shi Enxiang

07.05.1997: John Bai Ningxian, by Joseph Zhong Huaide

2…07.1997: John Fang Xing Yao, by Thomas Zhao Feng Wu

24.06.1997: John Baptist Wang Xi Xian, by Anthony Li Duan

13.07.1997: Peter Lin Jiashan, by John Yang Shudao

28.01.1998: Ermenegildus Li Yi, by Anthony Li Weidao

13.06.1998: Anthony Zhong Changfeng, by John Baptist Liang Xicheng

09.05.1999: Damase Zhang Hanmin, by Pius Jin Peixian

14.09.1999: John Baptist Wang Jin, by Sylvester Li Jiantang

28.12.1999: Zhang Tongli, by Anthony Zhong Changfeng

06.01.2000: Peter Fang Jianping, by Joseph Liu Yuanren

06.01.2000: Andrew Jin Daoyuan, by Joseph Liu Yuanren

06.01.2000: Francis Xavier Lu Xinping, by Joseph Liu Yuanren

06.01.2000: John Baptist Su Changshan, by Joseph Liu Yuanren

06.01.2000: Vincent Zhan Silu, by Joseph Liu Yuanren

20.03.2000: Joseph Li Lian Gui, by John Liu Dinghan

07.05.2000: Joseph Zhao Fengchang, by Joseph Ma Xuesheng

14.05.2000: Michael He Jinmin, by Joseph Ma Xuesheng

14.05.2000: Matthew Hu Xiande, by Joseph Ma Xuesheng

25.06.2000: Matthew Cao Xiangde, by Yu Cheng-cai

08.08.2000: Joseph Jiang Mingyuan, by Raymund Wang Chong Lin

13.08.2000: Joseph Li Mingshu, by Joseph Ma Xuesheng

28.11.2000: John Chrisostome Lan Shi, by Lawrence Zhang Wenbin

10.12.2000: John Baptist Ye Ronghua, by Anthony Li Duan

19.02.2002: Leo Yao Liang, by Joseph Wei Jingyi

08.03.2002: Paul Wang Huiyao, by Alphonse Yang Guangyan

12.11.2002: Joseph Tong Changping, by Lawrence Zhang Wengbin

05.01.2003: Joseph Han Zhihai, by Paul Xie Tingzhe

21.01.2003: John Baptist Tan Yanquan, by Pius Jin Peixian

26.09.2003: Joseph Liao Hongqing, by Bernardine Dong Guangqing

14.10.2003: Peter Mao Qingfu, by Peter Li Hongye

14.10.2003: Placidus Pei Ronggui, by Peter Li Hongye

00.00.2004: Joseph Shi Shuang-xi, by N. N.

06.01.2004: Peter Feng Xinmao, by Liu Ding-han

08.02.2004: Paul Ma Cunguo, by Bonaventure Luo Juan

17.02.2004: Thomas Zhao Kexun, by Joseph Wei Jingyi

29.04.2004: Joseph Zhang Xianwang, by James Zhao Zi-ping

07.05.2004: Matthias Du Jiang, by John Liu Shigong

05.07.2004: Paul Ji Zengwei, by Augustine Hu Daguo

19.11.2004: Paul Su Yongda, by John Fang Xing Yao

00.00.2005: Paul Dong Guanhua, by N. N.

01.01.2005: Joseph Gao Hongxiao, by Liang Xisheng

28.06.2005: Joseph Xing Wenzhi, by Aloysius Jin Luxian

26.07.2005: Anthony Dan Mingyan, by Anthony Li Du’an

18.10.2005: Paul He Zeqing, by Joseph Xu Zixhuan

19.10.2005: Joseph Wu Qinjing, by Anthony Li Duan

00.00.2006: Zhuang Jianjian, by N. N.

20.04.2006: Joseph Xu Honggen, by John Fang Xing Yao

30.04.2006: Joseph Ma Yinglin, by Bernardine Dong Guang-qing

03.05.2006: Joseph Liu Xinhong, by John Wu Shizhen

07.05.2006: Paul Pei Junmin, by Pius Jin Peixian

30.11.2006: John Wang Renlei, by Joseph Zhao Fengchang

08.09.2007: Paul Xiao Zejiang, by Andreas Anicetus Wang Chongyi

21.09.2007: Joseph Li Shan, by John Fang Xing Yao

10.11.2007: Peter Shao Zumin, by Vincent Huang Shoucheng

30.11.2007: Francis Lu Shouwang, by Louis Yu Ren Shen

04.12.2007: Joseph Gan Junqiu, by John Fang Xing Yao

14.12.2007: Peter Jin Lugang, by Joseph Wei Jingyi

21.12.2007: Joseph Li Jing, by John Baptist Liu Jingshan

28.12.2008: Vincent Guo Xijin, by Vincent Huang Shoucheng

10.01.2009: Vincent Zhu Weifang, by Joseph Gao Hongxiao

18.04.2010: Paul Meng Qinglu, by Paul Pei Junmin

21.04.2010: Joseph Shen Bin, by John Fang Xin Yao

08.05.2010: Joseph Cai Bingrui, by John Fang Xin Yao

24.06.2010: Joseph Han Yingjin, by Joseph Tsong Huaide

10.07.2010: Anthony Xu Jiwei, by Joseph Li Ming Shu

15.07.2010: John Baptist Yang Xiaoting, by Louis Yu Ren Chen

16.09.2010: Paul Meng Ningyu, by Sylvester Li Jiantang

21.09.2010: Peter Wu Junwei, by John Huo Cheng

31.10.2010: John Baptist Li Sugong, by Joseph Li Shan

15.11.2010: Joseph Yang Yongqiang, by John Fang Xing Yao

20.11.2010: Joseph Guo Jincai, by Peter Fang Jianping

00.00.2011: John Wang Ruowang, by N. N.

30.03.2011: Paul Liang Jiansen, by Joseph Gan Junqiu

20.05.2011: John Lu Peisan, by John Fang Xingyao

21.06.2011: Joseph Sun Jigen, by Stephen Yang Xiangtai

29.06.2011: Paul Lei Shiyin, by John Fang Xinyao

14.07.2011: Joseph Huang Binzhang, by John Fang Xingyao

30.11.2011: Peter Luo Xuegang, by John Chen Shi-zhong

19.04.2012: Joseph Chen Gong’ao, by Peter Fang Jianping

25.04.2012: Method Qu Ailin, by Joseph Li Shan

06.07.2012: Joseph Yue Fusheng, by John Fang Xingyao (?)

07.07.2012: Thaddeus Ma Daquin, by Aloysius Jin Luxian

28.11.2012: Francis Xavier Jin Yangke, by Matthew Hu Xiande

07.04.2013: Auguste Cui Tai, by N. N.

13.02.2014: Peter Li Huiyuan, by N. N.

10.04.2014: John Pei Weizhao, by N. N.

04.08.2015: Joseph Zhang Yinlin, by Thomas Zhang Huaixin

10.11.2016: Peter Ding Lingbin, by Joseph Li Shan

30.11.2016: Joseph Tang Yuange, by John Fang Xingyao

30.11.2016: John Baptist Wang Xiaoxun, by John Baptist Yang Xiaoting

02.12.2016: John Lei Jiapei, by John Fang Xingyao

23.11.2020: Thomas Chen Tianhao, by John Fang Xingyao

22.12.2020: Peter Liu Genzhu, by Paul Meng Yinglou

28.07.2021: Anthony Li Hui, by Joseph Ma Yinglin

08.09.2021: Joseph Cui Qingqi, by Joseph Ma Yinglin

25.01.2024: Thaddeus Weng Yuesheng, by Joseph Shen Bin

29.01.2024: Anthony Sun Wenjun, by John Fang Xingyao

31.01.2024    Peter Wu Yishun, by Joseph Li Shan

In this survey or in other places of this website there is no difference made regarding obediences or legitimities, for in most cases bishops were not able to make a choice between papal or patriotic direction. Patriotic dioceses and offices were allocated to the official Vatican jurisdictions. Therefore also after 1958 you will find archbishops, but also two or even three bishops for one diocese simultaneously. This is bound to the times‘ special circumstances.

On September 22, 2018, the Holy See, represented by Mons. Antoine Camilleri, Undersecretary for the Relations with States, and Mr. Wang Chao, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, signed a „Provisional Agreement“ on the appointment of bishops without publishing the text. This treaty, criticized even before by parts of the underground church as well as by Cardinal Joseph Zen Ze-kiun of Hong Kong, decrees the formal erection of Chengde Diocese, which since 2010 has been run by regime attached bishop Joseph Guo Jingcai, as well as the Roman acknowledgement of this prelate and of the other up to now illegitimate and excommunicated Bishops Joseph Huang Bingzhang, Paul Lei Shiyin, Joseph Liu Xinhong, Joseph Ma Yinglin, Joseph Yue Fusheng and Vincent Zhan Silu and posthumous of 2017 deceased Anthony Tu Shihua. On October 22, 2020, the agreement was renewed for another two years as well as on October 22, 2022.

A special thank to Mr Andreas Brender, M. A., Kirchzarten, who’s website was of special meaning for this survey, as well as to Fr. Jean Charbonnier, M. E. P., and to his compendium Guide To The Catholic Church in China, Singapore 2014. The photos are from the author’s archive; copyrights were not ascertainable.